Menstuff® has compiled the following facts on STDs as of
9/12/05. STI is the new term that is expected to replace STD since
many sexually transmitted infections are just that, infections and
not diseases. Therefore, the Sexually
Transmitted Infections (STI) appears to be a more accurate
Estimating how many STD cases occur is not a simple or
straightforward task. First, most STDs can be "silent," causing no
noticeable symptoms. These asymptomatic infections can be diagnosed
only through testing. Unfortunately, routine screening programs are
not widespread, and social stigma and lack of public awareness
concerning STDs often inhibits frank discussion between health care
providers and patients about STD risk and the need for testing. --
ASHA. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at
What Cost? December 1998.
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2. American Social Health Association. (1998). Sexually transmitted diseases in America: How many cases and at what cost? Research Triangle Park, NC: American Social Health Association.
3. Cates W, Jr., American Social Health Association Panel. (1999). Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 26(Suppl. 4), S2-7.
4. Institute of Medicine. (1997). The hidden epidemicConfronting sexually transmitted disease (edited by Thomas R. Eng and William T. Butler). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
5. St Lawrence JS et al. (2002). STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1784-1788.
6. Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's Teenagers. New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute.
7. Cates JR, Herndon NL, Schulz S L, Darroch JE. (2004). Our voices, our lives, our futures: Youth and sexually transmitted diseases. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism and Mass Communication.
8. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W, Jr. (2004). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: Incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 6-10.
9. Chesson HW, Blandford JM, Gift TL, Tao G, Irwin KL. (2004). The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases among American youth, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 11-19.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B Frequently Asked Questions. Updated April 1, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/faqb.htm
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B Prevention for Men Who Have Sex With Men. Online Fact Sheet. Updated April 1, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/msm/hbv_msm_fact.htm.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tracking the hidden epidemics, 2000: Trends in the United States. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/news/RevBrochure1pdfHepatitisB.htm.
13. Fleming DT et al. (1997). Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 19761994. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 11051111.
14. Corey L & Handsfield HH. (2000). Genital herpes and public health: addressing a global problem. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 791-794.
15. Armstrong GL et al. (2001). Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 912-920.
16. Fisman DN et al. (2002). Projection of the future dimensions and costs of the genital herpes simplex type 2 epidemic in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 608-622.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection. Online Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 9, 2005 from http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm.
18. American Social Health Association. (2005). State of the Nation 2005: Challenges facing STD prevention in youth. Research Triangle Park, NC: American Social Health Association.
19. National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2004). The state of health care quality: 2004. Washington, DC: NCQA.
20. Ness RB et al. (2004). Condom use and the risk of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, or infertility following an episode of pelvic inflammatory disease. American Journal of Public Health, 2004, 94:1327-1329.
21. Crosby RA et al. (2003). The value of consistent condom use: a study of sexually transmitted disease prevention among African American adolescent females. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 901-902.
22. Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. (2004). Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 454-464.
23. Shlay JC et al. (2004). Comparison of sexually transmitted disease prevalence by reported level of condom use among patients attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31, 154-160.
24. Bleeker MC et al. (2003). Condom use promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. International Journal of Cancer, 104, 804-810.
25. Hogewoning CJ et al. (2003). Condom use promotes regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of human papillomavirus: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Cancer, 107, 811-816.