Hate Crimes

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Hate Crimes

Bias Crimes in America: The Nature and Magnitude of the Problem
The Hate Crimes You Don't Hear About
What is Hate Mail

Stop Hate Crimes!

Summary of Hate Crime Statistics, 2002

Open Letter from Anjelica Kieltyka, Lynn Conway, Andrea James and Calpernia Addams to faculty of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University, regarding the Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report on Transgender Hate Crimes, and How Pseudo-Science Fuels The Hate
Hate Crime Statutes: A Message to Victims and Perpetrators
Federal Hate Crime Awareness and Training Initiatives
Booklet, Brochures, Fact Sheets and Reports
Magazines and Newsletters
Classroom Materials and Kits
Videos, Posters, and Other Items
Studies and Articles

Hate Crimes

Understanding the perpetrators and victims of hate crimes and the reltionship of these crimes to substance abuse is a new area. We know, based on the limited information from a survey of skinheads, that heavy use of alcohol and some use of drugs often precedes incidents of hate-related violence among these groups.

This limited information suggests waves of research are needed to provide more information on the nature of the link between substance abuse and the commission of hate crimes. Most perpetrators of hate crimes are young. They may be members of hate groups or gangs. If not, they may have been influenced by the multitude of the hate material provided as "fact" on the Internet.

Existing data on perpetrators and victims are not only unreliable, but they fail to look at the potential ink to substance abuse. Existing data collected by the FBI and advocacy groups are inconsistent due to many factors, including: differing definitions of hate crimes, the willingness of advocacy groups to collect information on hate activities (not necessarily defined as hate crimes), and the unwillingness of some victims to report hate crimes to law enforcement.

This resource guide presents the data that are available on perpetrators and victims of hate crimes, as well as the potential relationship to substance abuse. We hope this can spark deeper studies into this tragic phenomenon.

Nelba Chavez, Ph.D., Administrator
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Ruth Sanchez-Way, Ph.D., Acting Director, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

The listing of materials of programs in this resource guide does not constitute or imply endorsement by the Center fro Substance Abuse Prevention, the Public Health Service, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, or the Department of Health and Human Services. The materials have been reviewed for accuracy, appropriateness, and conformance with public health principals.

This Substance Abuse Resource Guide was compiled from a variety of publications and data bases and represents the most current inforamtion to date. It is not an all-inclusive listing of materials on this topic. This guide will be updated regularly, and your comments or suggestions are welcome. To suggest information or materails that might be included in future editions, please write to SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI), P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345.

Source: By D. Altschiller. Produced by SAMHSA's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, Denise C. Jones, editor. For further information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs, call 800-729-6686, 301-468-2600, or TDD 800-487-4889. Or visit us on our World Wide Web Site at ncadi.samhsa.gov

Bias Crimes in America: The Nature and Magnitude of the Problem

Violence directed against individuals on the basis of their race, religion, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation is disturbingly prevalent — and poses significant threats to the full participation of all Americans in a democratic society. Bias-motivated crimes are designed to intimidate the victim and members of the victim's community, leaving them feeling isolated, vulnerable, and unprotected by the law. By making victims of hate violence and their communities fearful, angry, and suspicious of other groups — and of the power structure that is supposed to protect them — these incidents can damage the fabric of our society and fragment communities.

The urgent national need for both a tough law enforcement response and education and programming to confront violent bigotry has increased over the past three years. As hate crime experts have noted, "If we were ever unsure, the September 11th attack on America provided indisputable evidence that a single situation can precipitate major changes in the ways that we behave toward the groups in our midst."1

In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the nation witnessed a disturbing rash of irrational attacks against Americans and others who appeared to be Muslim, Middle Eastern, or South Asian. The perpetrators of these crimes have lashed out at innocent people because of their personal characteristics — their race, religion, or ethnicity. Law enforcement officials have investigated hundreds of these "backlash" incidents, many involving youthful offenders — including vandalism, intimidation, assaults, and several murders at places of worship, schools, neighborhood centers, grocery stores, gas stations, restaurants, and homes.

In response to this disturbing series of attacks, a number of key administration officials — including President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, Secretary of Education Rod Paige, Attorney General John Ashcroft, and FBI Director Robert Mueller — spoke out against hate crimes and reached out to affected communities. On September 26, 2001, at a meeting with Sikh leaders at the White House, President Bush pledged that "our government will do everything we can not only to bring those people to justice, but also to treat every human life as dear, and to respect the values that made our country so different and so unique. We're all Americans, bound together by common ideals and common values."

Of course, after the events of September 11th, many Americans did understand the need to take affirmative steps to combat hate. A number of government and community initiatives since that time have illustrated that Americans care deeply about addressing prejudice and bias. In a nationwide survey of adults and youth on perceptions regarding community involvement and the need for dialogue between adults and youth, conducted by the National 4-H shortly after September 11th, "building respect/tolerance for others" was cited to be the most needed element for improving communities.

The 1992 American Psychological Association report entitled, Violence and Youth: Psychology's Response, identified "prejudice and discrimination" as one of the three leading causes of violence among American youth. In fact, education and exposure are the cornerstones of a long-term solution to prejudice, discrimination, bigotry, and anti-Semitism. Effective response to hate violence by public officials and law enforcement authorities, however, can play an essential role in deterring and preventing these crimes.

Stop Hate Crimes!

Hate crimes are criminal actions intended to harm or intimidate people because of their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, or other minority group status. They are also referred to as bias crimes.

Since the 1980s, the problem of hate crimes has attracted increasing research attention, especially from criminologists and law enforcement personnel who have focused primarily on documenting the prevalence of the problem and formulating criminal justice responses to it.

Lawmakers have passed legislation to encourage data collection and attach enhanced penalties to hate crimes at both state and federal levels. President Bill Clinton sponsored a White House Conference on Hate Crimes in 1997, at which he announced numerous initiatives, including his support for expanded coverage of hate crimes in federal legislation and his decision to include questions about hate crimes in the National Crime Victimization Survey.

This is the first large-scale study of the psychological impact of hate crimes based on sexual orientation. The data show that lesbian and gay hate crimes survivors manifested more symptoms of psychological distress than lesbian and gay survivors of "random" assaults in the same time period. Also check out:


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Mix It Up At Lunch Today!

How did Mix It Up at Lunch Day go at your school? What worked — and didn't work so well — during Mix Day? Did you meet anyone new? Share your experience and read what other students are saying. Fight Hate, Promote Tolerance tolerance.org

Open Letter from Anjelica Kieltyka, Lynn Conway, Andrea James and Calpernia Addams to faculty of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University, regarding the Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report on Transgender Hate Crimes, and How Pseudo-Science Fuels The Hate

To: Faculty members of the Department of Psychology, Northwestern University

From: Anjelica Kieltyka, Lynn Conway, Andrea James and Calpernia Addams

Subject: Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) Intelligence Report on Transgender Hate Crimes, and How Pseudo-Science Fuels The Hate

Dear faculty members:

The widely respected Southern Poverty Law Center has now come forward on the realities and causes of the terrible wave of hate crimes against transgender and transsexual women now rampant in many U.S. cities.

The Winter 2003 SPLC Intelligence Report (Issue 112) directly links these acts to the parallel historical legacy of discrimination against people of color, alternative religion, and lifestyle. The Intelligence Report also exposes the role played by academic bigots and right-wing pundits in their attempt to legitimize and promote their pseudo-science and thereby justify and intensify the prejudice and hatred of transgender people.

With this letter we wish to inform you that the Intelligence Report identifies J. Michael Bailey, the Chairman of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern, as a central figure in an elite reactionary group of academics, pundits and journalists now especially active in an insidiously noxious "scientific" and "scholarly" pursuit of institutionalized bigotry and defamation of transsexual women

Why we bring this news to you

We are socially assimilated trans women who are mentors to many young transsexuals in transition. Unable to bear children of our own, the girls we mentor become like children to us.

These young women depend on us for guidance during the difficult period of transition and then on during their adventures afterwards - dating, careers, marriages and sometimes adoption of their own children. As a result, we have large extended families and are blessed by these relationships.

Through our extended families we know first-hand how Bailey's junk science is hurting young trans women. Struggling to transition in a society already dangerously hateful towards them, they must now face officially sanctioned stereotypes and defamations heaped onto them by this "sex scientist" - and watch in shock as his pseudo-science fuels the social hatred of them.

We see the reality of the pain being inflicted by this pseudo-science on these innocent young women. We know firsthand of cases where it is destroying their relationships with families and friends, limiting or even ruining their chances for employment, and causing deep emotional angst. One woman wrote to us describing how her mother came running into her bedroom after reading Bailey's book, and threw the book at her shouting "Now I know what you are!"...

You may have wondered why hundreds of successful, assimilated trans women like us, women from all across the country, are being so persistent in investigating Mr. Bailey and in uncovering and reporting his misdeeds. Now you have your answer: We are hundreds of loving moms whose children he is tormenting!

In conclusion:

Only by stepping back and grasping the tragic realities of the social context into which Mr. Bailey ingratiated himself, surreptitiously conducted research studies, and then published his "results" - only then can one see the exploitive and predatory nature of his work, the true dimensions of his misconduct, and the horrific impact of his corrupted pseudo-science on vulnerable young lives.

Future generations of children, diverse and variant, yours and ours, must be made safe from prejudice and hate, both on the streets and alleys of the cities and in the classrooms of our schools and colleges. Our children must no longer be exploited, victimized, and made to look pathetic and ridiculous by fraudulent and dubious researchers, academics and yes, even some who are your colleagues and "friends". It has to stop here and now.

We urge you to suspend disbelief. Read those SPLC Intelligence Report articles for yourselves. Then contemplate the role that some psychologists, including your Department Chairman, are playing in fostering hate and violence against young transsexual women.


Anjelica Kieltyka
Transsexual Advocate and Mentor
Berwyn, Illinois

Lynn Conway
Transsexual Advocate and Mentor
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Andrea James
Transsexual Advocate and Mentor
Hollywood, California

Calpernia Addams
Transsexual Advocate and Mentor
Hollywood, California

Among other things, you'll learn of our advocacy and mentoring of young trans women. Many of the women we've worked with have experienced hate and violence of the kinds reported in the SPLC Investigative Report. All of us have been touched by violence against those we know and love, most especially Calpernia:

Calpernia's boyfriend Pfc. Barry Winchell was the Army Airborne soldier who was murdered in 1999 by his Army buddies simply for loving her. Barry's buddies murdered him in a rage over their perception that he himself was "homosexual", when all he'd done was fall in love with a beautiful transgender woman. That tragic story is told in the recent Showtime movie "Soldier's Girl", now available on DVD:
Source: www.calpernia.com/index.html?soldiersgirl/index.html~mainFrame

We ask you as psychologists to watch that DVD, and then reflect on the role that a handful of psychologists are now playing in fueling the widespread hatred of gender variant people. Only then will you gain an appreciation of the national implications of "queered sex-research" such as that done by Mr. Bailey at Northwestern University.

Anjelica Kietlyka:

Andrea James, Lynn Conway and Calpernia Addams (l-r), while in Chicago, Illinois on July 19, 2003:


Summary of Hate Crime Statistics, 2002

Number of

known offenders







Anti-American Indian/Alaskan Native


Anti-Asian/Pacific Islander


Anti-multi-racial group


Ethnicity/national origin




Anti-other ethnicity/national origin












Anti-other religious group


Anti-multi-religious group




Sexual orientation


Anti-male homosexual


Anti-female homosexual














Multiple-bias incidents


Total 1

1. A multiple-bias incident is a hate crime in which two or more offense types were committed as a result of two or more bias motivations.

Source: Crime in the United States, 2002, FBI, Uniform Crime Reports. Stats: www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004885.html See also www.hatecrime.org

Hate Crime Statutes: A Message to Victims and Perpetrators

While bigotry cannot be outlawed, hate crime penalty enhancement statutes in the United States have demonstrated an important commitment to confronting criminal activity motivated by prejudice. At present, the federal government, forty-six states, and the District of Columbia have enacted hate crime penalty-enhancement laws, many based on an ADL model statute drafted in 1981.7 In Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476 (1993), the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upheld the constitutionality of the Wisconsin penalty-enhancement statute — effectively removing any doubt that state legislatures may properly increase the penalties for criminal activity in which the victim is intentionally targeted because of his/her race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, or ethnicity.8

At the federal level, currently pending legislation, the Local Law Enforcement Enhancement Act (LLEEA), would complement Section 245 of Title 18 U.S.C. — one of the primary statutes now used to combat racial and religious bias-motivated violence. That statute prohibits intentional interference, by force or threat of force, with the enjoyment of a federal right or benefit (such as voting, going to school, or working) on the basis of the victim's race, color, religion, or national origin. Under the current law, enacted in 1968, the government must prove that the crime occurred because of a person's membership in a protected group — and because (not while) he/she was engaging in a federally-protected activity. In testimony before Congress, Justice Department officials have identified a number of significant racial violence cases in which federal prosecutions have been stymied by these unwieldy dual jurisdictional requirements.9

The LLEEA would remove these overly-restrictive obstacles to federal involvement by permitting prosecutions without having to prove that the victim was attacked because he/she was engaged in a federally-protected activity. Second, it would provide expanded authority for federal officials to investigate and prosecute cases in which the bias violence occurs because of the victim's actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender, or disability. Current federal law does not provide authority for involvement in these cases at all.

The vast majority of bias crimes are effectively addressed at the state and local level. However, in states without hate crime statutes, and in others with limited coverage, local prosecutors are simply not able to pursue bias crime convictions.10 In a limited number of these cases, and others in which the local prosecutor is unable or unwilling to investigate and prosecute, federal assistance or involvement is warranted.

This measure has attracted bipartisan support in Congress. The House version of the LLEEA now has more than 175 cosponsors. On June 15, 2004, the Senate overwhelmingly approved the measure as part of the Department of Defense authorization bill (S. 2400) by a vote of 65 to 33. A broad supporting coalition of religious, law enforcement, and civil rights groups are working to retain the Senate-passed provisions in the House-Senate conference.

Federal Hate Crime Awareness and Training Initiatives

There is growing awareness in the United States of the need to complement tough laws and more vigorous enforcement — which can deter and redress violence motivated by bigotry — with education and training initiatives designed to reduce prejudice. The U.S. government has played a central role in funding program development in this area and promoting awareness of initiatives that work.

For example, in association with the Department of Education's Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, the Justice Department's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has provided funding for the development of Partners Against Hate (www.partnersagainsthate.org), an ambitious program of outreach, public education, and training to help address the cycle of bias, hatred, distrust, and violence by: (1) increasing public awareness — especially among youth and juvenile justice professionals — about promising practices to reduce and prevent youth-initiated hate violence; (2) providing effective hate crime prevention and intervention strategies and training and technical assistance for law enforcement agencies, educators, religious and community leaders, parents, and youth; and (3) helping individuals working with youth embrace the potential of advanced communications technologies — particularly the Internet — to break down barriers, address biases, and provide communities with the services and support they need.11

Another federally-funded hate violence prevention initiative is CommUNITY 2000, the nation's first fair-housing related community tensions program. Because fair housing laws allow for intervention and remedial action at the harassment stage, they can play a major role in preventing hate crimes. Working through national and local coalitions, CommUNITY 2000, a HUD-funded program, developed a menu of strategies, available through www.civilrights.org, to prevent, respond to, and reconcile tensions that arise when people make choices about where to live.

America is becoming increasingly diverse, and the need for education is fundamental for preventing bias in juveniles. In January 2002, researchers at the Northeastern University Center for Criminal Justice Policy Research did a study of high school students in Massachusetts, which found that "schools that have recently experienced an influx in race or ethnic minorities in recent years tend to have higher rates of racial or ethnically bias-motivated crimes." This study revealed the importance of promoting multicultural awareness and understanding in schools as the population changes in order to reduce instances of bias-motivated violence. The researchers concluded that peers, faculty, and family members "must be in a position to be constructive and supportive when informed of bias victimization."


Hate Crimes: A Reference Handbook
This reference book discusses many aspects of hate crimes, including what societal factors instigated the trend, what makes hate crimes different from other crimes, and whether or not legal penalties should be stricter for those who commit hate crimes. The volume also features a historical survey of some of the main targets of hate crimes, a chronology of some of the crimes committed against them, and biographies of individuals combating violent extremist activities.

Against All Odds: Holocaust Survivors and the Successful Lives They Made in America by W. B. Helmreich
This book spotlights Holocaust survivors who came to the United States and became vital contributors to their communities. It examines how they lived with the memories of their ordeal and managed to adjust witout succumbing to fear and insanity. Through this book, victims of hate crimes can become empowered to move on with their lives. The book contains a generally positive message, although certain incidents in which the victim was unable to fully overcome the horror of his or her experience are discussed.

Booklet, Brochures, Fact Sheets and Reports

A Policymaker's Guide to Hate Crimes by Ferrante, J.; Holden, G.; Kapler, R.; Lawerence, P.; and Moran, L.
This monograph contains information on community and organizational responses to hate crimes. For example, the Anti-Defamation League worked with the State attorney general's office in Massachusetts to develop a Youth Diversion Project. Through this project, nonviolent offenders are diverted into alternative education and community service programs. In another example, the National Center for State and Local Law Enforcement Training provides staff support, literature, and technical assistance to communities trying to develop anti-violence projects and to local gay and lesbian groups. In addition to the organizational activities, one of the most promising initiatives undertaken in States is the formation of coalitions united against bigotry. Some of these coalitions or networks serve as clearinghouses of information about rights and provide available services and resources. The monograph describes these State initiatives in detail and provides information on organizational activities and contacts within the organizations. Availability: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 810 Seventh Street, NW., Washington, DC 20531; 800-688-4252; www.ncjrs.org Also available online at: www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/bja/162304.txt Free

Preventing Youth Hate Crime: A Manual for Schools and Communities
This pamphlet describes elements of effective school-based hate prevention programs and provides examples of successful programs. In addition, it suggests classroom activities and discussion topics for elementary schools and for middle and secondary schools. Recommendations include providing hate prevention training for school staff and students and developing partnerships with families, community organizations, and law enforcement. The pamphlet contains a listing of resource organizations, Web pages, and a bibliography of curricula and instructional materials. Availability: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 600 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20202-6123; 202-260-3954; www.ed.gov Free

Stopping Hate Crime: A Case History from the Sacramento Police Department
Between July and October 1993, Sacramento experienced four arsons and three attempted arsons. The arsonist called the media to claim responsibility as part of the Aryan Liberation Front. The Sacramento Police Department responded by creating a task force with the support of Federal agencies. The task force developed a suspect profile of the arsonist, witness statements, and recordings of his voice. The profile helped Sacramento police locate and arrest an 18-year-old white male who was later convicted of hate-motivated arson. On the basis of this experience, the Sacramento police made a series of recommendations to other communities, including training every officer to recognize a hate crime; establishing a multi-agency task force in areas where these crimes occur; obtaining full support from every elected official; and seeking assistance from every source of local, State, and Federal law enforcement. The Sacramento police also recommend obtaining, if possible, a sophisticated vehicle that permits close but covert surveillance, encouraging community participation, and using community programs to raise public awareness. Organization: United States Department of Justice. Available online at www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles/fs000161.txt Free

Anti-Asian Violence
This written report contains Karen Narasaki's testimony before the United States Senate. Narasaki is the Executive Director of the National Asian Pacific Legal Consortium, and this document is a written record of her testimony concerning the reauthorization of the Hate Crime Statistics Act. Availability: National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, 1140 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036; 202-296-2300; www.napalc.org , Cost: $5

The Skinhead International: A Worldwide Survey of Neo-Nazi Skinheads by I. Suall
This survey is the first major study of its kind. Its disturbing findings include that the Skinhead movement has over 70,000 youth members in 33 countries on 6 continents. It is based on an 18-month survey and contains a country-by-country description of the Skinhead movement. It explains the "Skinhead International" movement, and how it is linked through a vast network of propaganda. It also explains that the movement does not seek political power; rather it aims to achieve its goals by destabilizing society through violence and intimidation. Through this report, the Anti-Defamation League hopes to increase public awareness of the Skinhead movement and the threat it poses to society. Availability: Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; 212-490-2525; www.adl.org Cost: $7.50

Young Nazi Killers: The Rising Skinhead Danger
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) has been tracking the activities of neo-Nazi Skinheads in a series of reports beginning in 1987. In the latest of their reports, Young Nazi Killers: The Rising Skinhead Danger, the ADL reiterates that neo-Nazi groups are not simply a passing fad, but rather an increasingly large and increasingly violent movement within the United States and abroad. Essentially an informational report, Young Nazi Killers discusses the organization of the Skinhead movement, provides examples of the types of violence perpetrated by the groups, and offers recommendations for short- and long-term goals to suppress their actions. enforcement officials Availability: Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; 212-490-2525; www.adl.org Cost: $5

Hate Crime Statistics
In response to the passage of the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990, the Attorney General designated the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program of the FBI as the unit responsible for developing a data collection system for its 16,000 voluntary law enforcement agency participants. With the cooperation and assistance of several local and State law enforcement agencies already experienced in investigating hate crimes and collecting related information, comprehensive guidelines for collecting hate crime data were established. The document identifies participating States and agencies, and the number of incidents by type of bias motivation in each reporting city, county, or university. The document also identifies the race of offenders and victims. Availability: Federal Bureau of Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover Building, 935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20535-0001; 202-324-3000; www.fbi.gov Full reports available online at www.fbi.gov/ucr/hatecrime.pdf Cost: Free

Magazines and Newsletters

Intelligence Report
The Southern Poverty Law Center's quarterly Intelligence Report offers in-depth analysis of political extremism and bias crimes in the United States. The Intelligence Report profiles far right leaders, monitors domestic terrorism, and reports on the activities of extremist groups. Its annual listing of hate groups and patriot groups is the most comprehensive in the United States. Each issue contains summaries of bias incidents from throughout the country. Availability: Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104; 334-264-0286; www.splcenter.org Cost: Free to qualified organizations

Teaching Tolerance
The Teaching Tolerance magazine spotlights educators, schools, and curriculum resources dedicated to promoting respect for differences in the classroom and beyond. The 64-page full-color magazine provides a national forum for sharing techniques and exploring new ideas in the areas of tolerance, diversity, and justice. Each issue of Teaching Tolerance includes in-depth features on such topics as race relations, homophobia, religious diversity, and anti-Semitism. It also provides information on and offers classroom activity ideas, along with classroom activities and resource recommendations. The articles in the magazine address equity concerns at all grade levels, pre-school through secondary. Many post-secondary teachers and teacher preparation programs also find the material to be of interest. Availability: Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104; 334-264-0286; www.splcenter.org Cost: Free to qualified organizations

Classroom Materials and Kits

Team Harmony Organizing Kit
Team Harmony is a school-based initiative responsible for anti-bias rallies in Boston, Washington, and other cities. Started by Boston-area professional sports teams in 1994, Team Harmony combats bigotry among middle and high school students. Its rallies are unique multimedia events, which combine entertainment, education, and interactive dialogue. Since its first event in 1994, Team Harmony has involved more than 35,000 middle and high school students, empowering them to initiate change in attitudes toward bigotry and violence. This kit provides teachers with the materials they need to create a Team Harmony within their own school. Availability: Team Harmony Foundation, Inc., c/o The Rendon Group, Inc., 33 Union Street, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02108; 800-63-UNITY. Cost: Free

Healing the Hate: A National Bias Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools
This curriculum, developed with the assistance of an expert advisory board, provides lesson plans, reading materials, handouts, activities, role-playing exercises, and guidelines for classroom discussion. The purchase of specific tapes to accompany the materials is recommended. This is a comprehensive and self-explanatory curriculum that can easily be used without extensive training of teachers. Availability: Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849, 800-638-8736; www.ncjrs.org/ojjdp Cost: Free

Hands Across the Campus
Hands Across the Campus is a curriculum designed to reduce prejudice. It is now in use in at least 12 cities at the high school level and in some middle schools as well. The 800-page curriculum with lesson plans, readings, and activities has been supported in communities where it has been used. The national office of the American Jewish Committee provides training and materials, while school districts provide per diem allowances and in-service credits for participating faculty. Local foundations or businesses often pay other direct expenses. Hands Across the Campus has two other components: a leadership training program for selected students (including "nontraditional" leaders who are not generally included in leadership training), and techniques for improving intergroup relations through a community/school partnership. Availability: The American Jewish Committee, 1156 15th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005; 202-785-4200; www.ajc.org/wwa/handsweb.asp Cost: Contact American Jewish Committee

Videos, Posters, and Other Items

Beyond Hate
Bill Moyers examines the historical, philosophical, and psychological roots of hatred through interviews with Elie Wiesel, Vaclav Havel, and Jimmy Carter. He also visits gang members in South Central Los Angeles, members of "White Aryan Resistance," American civil rights activists, Holocaust survivors, hate crime victims, and young people trying to cope with violence in their lives. Availability: Facing History and Ourselves, www.facing. org Cost: Rental is free to teachers who have participated in the Facing History and Ourselves program

Crimes of Hate
In an era when bias crimes are increasing in frequency and intensity, this documentary video examines the twisted thinking and motivations of perpetrators, the anguish of their victims, and the way law enforcement deals with these crimes. The video consists of an overview of hate crimes and three segments: "The Crime of Racism," "The Crime of Anti-Semitism," and "The Crime of Gaybashing." Availability: Facing History and Ourselves, http://www.facing.org Cost: Rental is free to teachers who have participated in the Facing History and Ourselves program

Studies and Articles

1999 Hate Crimes Laws, Rosenberg, D.; and Lieberman, M.
The Anti-Defamation League developed model hate crimes legislation that uses a penalty-enhancement approach. A landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision upheld the constitutionality of such a statute in Wisconsin in June 1993. Since that time, 40 States and the District of Columbia have enacted similar laws, making perpetrators subject to more severe penalties if their crimes are bias-motivated. In 1996, the Anti-Defamation League added gender to its model legislation. Now 19 of the 41 statutes cover those who are victimized because of their gender. This publication also examines Federal hate crime laws. Section 280003 of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 directed the U.S. Sentencing Commission to provide a sentencing enhancement of at least three offense levels for offenses that are determined, at trial, to be hate crimes beyond a reasonable doubt. The legislation defines a hate crime as an act committed on the basis of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person. The Church Arsons Prevention Act broadened Federal criminal jurisdiction to facilitate criminal prosecutions for attacks against places of worship, increased penalties for the crimes, and provided a loan guarantee recovery fund so that burned places of worship could be rebuilt.

Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe in Modern Dress. American Psychological Association. Position Paper. 1998. Available online at: www.apa.org/pubinfo/hate

The American Psychological Society believes that through psychological study, a perspective of the general nature of crimes committed because of real or perceived differences in race, religion, ethnicity or national origin, sexual orientation, disability, or gender can be obtained. In this paper, produced in coop-eration with the Office of Public Policy and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, the American Psychological Society creates general profiles of hate crime offenders, statistics on the incidence of hate crime, and a brief overview of the many different reasons people commit hate crimes.

Hate Motivated Crime and Violence: Information for Schools, Communities, and Families, National Education Association. Availabile online at: www.nea.org/issues/safescho/hatecrim.aspx , 1997.

The National Education Association recommends three basic steps to reduce hate crime: organizational development, action and crisis planning, and data collection. Organizational development involves developing a School Safety Committee that includes representatives of all education employees and student groups who work with community representatives. This committee should develop and gather data on hate-motivated incidents and draft a report with recommendations for policy and action, based on what the data reveal. Recommendations should include prevention strategies, as well as intervention and suppressive strategies if needed. Examples of preventive strategies are codes that prohibit hate-related symbols and language. Preventive strategies require that diversity and multiculturalism be integrated into the curriculum. The third step, data collection, requires continued monitoring and assessment of data in the school and community. The report lists nine areas on which this effort should focus. An appendix includes an example form for conducting a hate crimes school survey.

Hate Crime Victimization Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults, Colgan, J.; Gillis, J.; Glunt, E.; and Herek, G., Journal of Interpersonal Violence: 12(2): 195-215, 1997.
This article discusses part of an ongoing investigation of the prevalence, nature, and psychological consequences of crimes committed as a result of sexual orientation. Because there were no significant statistical differences, the authors combined data on crimes committed because of bias and crimes not related to sexual orientation. Questionnaire data about victimization experiences were collected from 147 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals who were open about their sexual orientation. Forty-five of the respondents participated in a follow-up interview. Only the respondents to the follow-up interview indicated the basis on which they determined that a crime was committed as a result of hate. Forty-one percent of those completing the initial questionnaire reported experiencing a bias-related criminal victimization since age 16. Another 9.5 percent reported an attempted bias crime against them. Most perpetrators of hate crimes were white. The remaining perpetrators were primarily Hispanic or African American. Compared with other respondents, bias crime survivors manifested higher levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress.

Faces of Hate Crimes, Leadership Conference Education Fund. Availabile online at: www.civilrights.org/lcef/ , 1997.
This paper, discusses hate crimes against specific groups and church arsons. It includes statistics on hate crimes against African-Americans, gays and lesbians, Arab-Americans, women, and several other groups.

The Criminalization of Hate: A Comparison of Structural and Political Influences on the Passage of "Bias-Crime" Legislation in the United States. Grattet, R.; and Jenness, V., Sociological Perspectives: 39(1): 129-154, 1996.
This article describes the content and distribution of hate crime laws, also known as bias crime laws. A complete inventory of hate crime statutes in the United States and social indicator data are used to investigate the social forces shaping the adoption of a particular type of hate crime legislation, the bias-motivated violence, and intimidation statutes. The authors use logistic regression analyses to determine how structural and political variables compare and interact in terms of their impact on the criminalization process. On the basis of the findings, the authors conclude that contemporary theoretical arguments about structural and political determinants of criminalization are insufficient to explain the recent criminalization of hate.

The Social Construction of a Hate Crime Epidemic, Jacobs, J.; and Henry, J., The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 86: 366-391, 1996.
The writers dispute the claim that the United States is undergoing a hate crime epidemic, and try to isolate the prevalence of hate crimes. They explore the hate crime epidemic hypothesis and identify its proponents, including advocacy groups, the media, academics, and politicians. They also investigate the hate crime data collection attempts of the Anti-Defamation League, the Klanwatch Project of the Southern Poverty Law Center Project, and the FBI. The authors discuss the political and subjective nature of counting hate crimes and provide some contrasting observations on the status of hate crimes.

Social Movement Growth, Domain Expansion, and Framing Processes: The Gay/Lesbian Movement and Violence Against Gays and Lesbians as a Social Problem, Jenness, V.. Social Problems 42(1): 145-179, 1995.

The author contacted 70 organizations representing gay men, lesbians, or both that organized responses to anti-gay and lesbian violence in their communities, and focused the article on 32 gay/lesbian-sponsored anti-violence projects in the United States. The organizations identified themselves as organizations of and/or for gays and lesbians; none self-identified as an organization focused on the needs of gays or lesbians of color or other minority groups. Some addressed dual risks for victimization through coalition-building, however. Seven of the 20 anti-violence projects consider documentation of incidents as their primary form of political action; some projects document hate crimes as established by Federal and State legislation; still others document hate activities as well as activities committed out of bias that do not officially constitute a crime. These activities have brought attention to the need to determine the scope and consequences of anti-gay and lesbian violence in the United States. Some organizations also provide assistance to victims, and all those collecting reports and most providing assistance to victims also conduct community education activities.


Organizations That Monitor Hate Crimes and/or Hate Activities. Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee, 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20008, Phone : 202-244-2990, Internet Site: http://www.adc.org
The Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) is a civil rights organization committed to defending the rights of people of Arab descent and promoting their cultural heritage. ADC, which is non-sectarian and non-partisan, is the largest grassroots organization in the United States. It was founded in 1980 by former Senator James Abourezk and has chapters nationwide. Through its Department of Legal Services, ADC offers counseling in cases of discrimination and defamation and selected impact litigation in the areas of immigration.

American Jewish Committee, 165 East 56 Street, New York, NY 10022, Phone: (212) 751-4000 Fax: (212) 838-2120. Internet site: www.ajc.org
The American Jewish Committee was created to protect the rights of Jews worldwide and to combat bigotry and anti-Semitism. It also monitors hate activities.

Anti-Defamation League, 823 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, Phone: (212) 490-2525, Fax: (212) 867-0779. Internet site: http://www.adl.org/
The Anti-Defamation League has become a leading resource in crafting responses to hate violence, including numerous publications and training materials. It collects, processes, and disseminates information on organized bigotry, racists, anti-Semites, and extremists.

Center for Democratic Renewal, P. O. Box 50469, Atlanta, GA 30302, Phone: (404) 221-0025, Fax: (404) 221-0045, E-mail
The Center for Democratic Renewal is a national clearinghouse on white supremacists. It also provides training on how to respond when white supremacists start organizing activities within a community. The Center serves as a coordinating organization for pastors of burned churches to help them recover and rebuild their churches.

Coalition for Human Dignity Information Center, P. O. Box 36, Bellingham, WA 98227, Phone: (360) 756-0914, Fax: (360) 738-3034, Internet site: www.halcyon.com/chd
The Coalition for Human Dignity Information Center publishes a quarterly report based on news reviews, investigative reporting, and critical analysis of the activities of the religious and racist right. It especially focuses on the Pacific Northwest.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting Program Communications Unit, Central Justice Information Services Division, FBI Module D3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road, Clarksburg, WV 26306-0154, Phone: (304) 625-4995, Fax: (304) 625-5394, Internet site: www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.aspx
The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reporting Section developed a data collection system for its 16,000 voluntary law enforcement agency participants. It publishes annual reports on bias-motivated criminal behavior.

Los Angeles County Human Relations Commission, 320 West Temple, Room 1184, Los Angeles, CA 90012, Phone: (213) 974-7611, Fax: (213) 687-4251, Internet site: la-sheriff.org/public-info/hate-crime/hate-crime.aspx
The Los Angeles County Human Relations Commission helps survey hate crimes in Los Angeles County schools and combines hate crime statistics in a yearly report to the Board of Supervisors. It also responds to hate crimes and disseminates information to appropriate law enforcement agencies, governmental organizations, and others.

National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium, 1140 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036, Phone: (202) 296-2300, Fax: (202) 296-2318, E-mail
The mission of the National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium is to advance and protect the legal and civil rights of the 9.7 million Asian Pacific Americans. It conducts a comprehensive, nationwide, nongovernmental analysis of anti-Asian violence in the United States in cooperation with the Asian Law Caucus and the Asian Pacific American Legal Center of Southern California. Numerous groups assist the consortium in collecting information on hate violence incidents.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 4805 Mt. Hope Drive, Baltimore, MD 21215, Phone : 410-521-4939, Internet Site: www.naacp.org
The NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, is the oldest and largest civil rights organization in the United States. The principle objective of the NAACP is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic quality of minority group citizens in the United States.

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, 1700 Kalorama Road, NW., Washington, DC 20009, Phone: (202) 332-6483, Fax: (202) 332-0207, Internet site: www.ngltf.org/
The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force is a civil rights organization working to achieve full equality for all lesbians and gay men. It reports annually on anti-gay/lesbian violence, victimization, and defamation. 

People for the American Way, 2000 M Street, NW., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, Phone: (202) 467-4999, Fax: (202) 293-2672, Internet site: www.pfaw.org
People for the American Way defends constitutional liberties. It publishes information on hate crimes and incidents on college campuses.

Police Executive Research Forum, 1120 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Suite 930, Washington, DC 20037, Phone: (202) 466-7820, Fax: (202) 466-7826, Internet site: www.policeforum.org
The Police Executive Research Forum is a leading law enforcement advocate of hate crime data collection and helps to promote the reporting of data.

Southern Poverty Law Center, 400 Washington Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36104, Phone: (334) 264-0286, Fax: (334) 264-8891, Internet Site: www.splcenter.org
The Southern Poverty Law Center monitors hate crimes and hate groups throughout the United States. It publishes a bimonthly review of hate crimes and activities of hate groups and also provides training.

Additional Internet Sites, American Civil Liberties Union, 125 Broad Street, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10004-2400, www.aclu.org

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockwall II, Rockville, MD 20857, 301-443-0365, www.samhsa.gov/csap

Court TV www.courttv.com/choices/curriculum/hatecrime/

Decision Support System for the Prevention of Substance Abuse, www.preventiondss.org

Facing History and Ourselves National Foundation, Inc., www.facing.org/

HateWatch, PMB 141, 955 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, 617-876-3796, hwww.hatewatch.org

Justice Information Center, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000, 800-851-3420, www.ncjrs.org/

Leadership Conference Education Fund, 1629 K Street, NW., Suite 1010, Washington, D.C. 20006, 202-466-3434, www.civilrights.org/lcef/

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847, 800-729-6686, ncadi.samhsa.gov

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20202, 800-USALEARN, www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Room 12-105 Parklawn building, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, 301-443-4795, www.samhsa.gov

U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, Mary E. Switzer Building, 330 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20202, 202-205-5413, www.ed.gov/offices/OCR

U.S. Department of Justice: "Justice for Kids and Youth", www.usdoj.gov/kidspage

Source: images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://ncadi.samhsa.gov/govpubs/resguideimages/hate.gif&imgrefurl=http://ncadi.samhsa.gov/govpubs/MS716/&h=769&w=478&sz=107&tbnid=H1SMySU0PQoJ:&tbnh=139&tbnw=87&start=28&prev=/images%3Fq%3D%2522hate%2Bcrimes%2522%26start%3D20%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN

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The study of crime begins with the knowledge of oneself. - Henry Miller


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